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Dice is a java implementation of a game often called Liar's Dice.

Here is an abbreviated description of the rules used in our implementation of this domain:

  • Each player gets five six-sided dice and a cup to conceal their dice from other players.
  • To begin each round, all players roll their dice under their cups and look at their new 'hand' while keeping it concealed from the other players. The first player begins bidding, picking a quantity of a face number. The quantity states the player's opinion on how many of the chosen face have been rolled in total on the table.
  • Each player has two choices during his turn: make a higher bid, or challenge the previous bid as being wrong. Raising the bid means either increasing the quantity, or the face value, or both, according to the specific bidding rules used.
  • The 1s ("aces") are wild and count as two in a bid, for example to outbid a bid of 2 one's, you must bid at least 5 of a non-wild face.
  • If the current player thinks the previous player's bid is wrong, he challenges it, and then all dice are revealed to determine whether the bid was valid. If the number of the relevant face revealed is at least as high as the bid, then the bid is valid, in which case the bidder wins. Otherwise, the challenger wins.

* Description of game rules derived from its Wikipedia page and is released under the Creative Commons license.

Environment Properties

  • Uncertainty
  • incomplete knowledge
  • multi-player

Associated Agents

A variety of agents is included in the environment download.


  • Requires these jars on the classpath:

    • sml.jar
    • soar-qna-9.3.1.jar
    • soar-smljava-9.3.1.jar
  • Also needs the environment variables SOAR_HOME set and LD_LIBRARY_PATH on Linux (DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH on OSX, PATH on Windows) set to $SOAR_HOME/lib.

  • To import into Eclipse, go to File > New > Java Project, un-check "Use Default Location" and under "Location" select the root directory of the project. All other default settings should be fine.

  • To run, right-click on the SoarMatch?.java file and select Run As > Java Application.


                id (any) copied from request
                probability (float) (0..1)

                id (any) user-data to be copied to input-link to correlate result
                number-of-dice (int) (1..)
                number-of-faces (int) (1..) usually 3 (normal, ones wild) or 6 (ones or special rules)
                count (int) (1..number-of-dice) Target number
                predicate (string) (eq ne ge gt le lt)

Predicate shorthand:
        eq: equal ==
        ne: not equal !=
        ge: greater than or equal >=
        gt: greater than >
        le: less than or equal <=
        lt: less than <


id: 1, number-of-dice: 3, number-of-faces: 6, count: 2, predicate: eq
yields: id: 1, probability: 0.06944

id: 2.0, number-of-dice: 5, number-of-faces: 3, count: 3, predicate: ge
yields: id: 2.0, probability: 0.20988

id: charlie, number-of-dice: 24, number-of-faces: 6, count: 6, predicate lt
yields: id: charlie, probability: 0.80047

Quick test using add-wme on empty agent:
aw i3 compute-dice-probability *
aw i4 id 1
aw i4 number-of-dice 5
aw i4 number-of-faces 3
aw i4 count 3
aw i4 predicate ge

Associated Publications



Miller Tinkerhess

Soar Versions

Soar 9